Writing a thesis abstract

A thesis abstract highlights the primary points discussed within the thesis. The abstract is the second page of a lab report or a psychological research paper and APA-format paper and should appear right after the title page Consider an abstract to be a condensed summary of your entire psychology paper Thesis students writing a thesis abstract write detailed, concrete, and concise proposals the semester. Writing in 200 words is considered a good abstract. After - mention the research methods that you used to answer your question. As a rule of thumb, one sentence summarizing each chapter in the abstract is ideal. Summarizes the key information from each of the main sections of the report, and proportionately so a 3-page section of a page report ought to take up about 30 percent of the informative abstract may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work.

However, there are professional abstracting services that hire writers to draft abstracts of other people’s work Abstract. As a general rule: Any statements of general fact should be written using the present tense. Abstracts must be printed on white, 8 ½ x 11 inch paper. writing a thesis abstract In writing a research paper, writing the abstract is an absolute must. A typical document consist of three main parts: 1 A thesis abstract is really a brief little form a thesis giving the key details and summary of the thesis. These Informative abstracts are like a condensed … Author: Megan Morgan, PhD Views: 4.6M Abstracts – The Writing Center • University of North https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/abstracts when writing a proposal for a conference paper. This article simplifies the process of writing a concise, informative abstract.

The first one, (A), was written by a student for a lab report, and the other one (B) was a revision written by someone with more experience in writing writing a thesis abstract abstracts. Jun 13, 2020 · Writing a thesis abstract. An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. However, an analysis of abstracts across a range of fields show that few follow this advice, nor do they take the opportunity to summarize previous work in their second sentence An abstract is an outline/brief summary of your paper and your whole project. Presented at the beginning of the thesis, it is likely the first substantive description of your work read by an external examiner. Pick out key statements from your introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections to frame your abstract with a ….

You need to find a comfortable balance between writing an abstract that both shows your knowledge and yet is still comprehensible--with some effort--by lay members of writing a thesis abstract the audience Jan 11, 2019 · An abstract is a brief overview of the key points of an article, report, thesis, or proposal.Positioned at the head of a paper, the abstract is usually "the first thing that individuals read and, as such, decide whether to continue reading" the article or report, wrote Dan W. www.wikihow.com/Write-an-Abstract. An abstract is a brief summary of a longer essay, book chapter, or research report. You'll want to know very soon whether the lawyer believes the accused to be guilty or not guilty, and how the lawyer plans to convince you. It is an original work, not an excerpted passage. It should be a single, complete. Read the abstract through.

After all that work the last thing you can afford to do is write a poor abstract. Thesis length Write for brevity rather than length. Summarizes writing a thesis abstract the key information from each of the main sections of the report, and proportionately so a 3-page section of a page report ought to take up about 30 percent of the informative abstract may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work. How to Write an Essay Abstract. These pages show two examples of typical abstracts from honours theses. An abstract must be fully self-contained and make sense by itself, without further reference to outside sources or to the actual paper Abstract The abstract is a separate document from the manuscript; it is not bound with the thesis or dissertation.

Date updated: 27 March 2020. If the abstract is neat and crisp, comprehensive and well written, if it provides the essential elements that enable one to make a judgement about the thesis, then hopefully, a potential examiner is already starting to engage with the task. These are the most important components of your thesis or report. Every time you write a section or a chapter, re-visit these recommendations and check whether you fullfilled all the requirements. Briefly state the methodology used in writing your thesis paper and go on to highlight the key findings and results of your research An abstract is a concise summary of an experiment or research project. Abstract A. People will only consider reading the rest of the manuscript if they find your abstract interesting. While it contains key words found in writing a thesis abstract the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage.

It is a well-developed paragraph, should be exact in wording, and must be understandable to a wide audience. Review the paper and isolate the main points of the essay. An abstract must be fully self-contained and make sense by itself, without further reference to outside sources or to the actual paper Below are two abstracts. The abstract writing a thesis abstract is what a person will read in order to determine if the overall material will be of. Jun 13, 2020 · Writing a thesis abstract To put it another way, this type of abstract summarizes the key information from every major section in the body of the report Apr 16, 2019 · Abstract or summary is an important part is written at the beginning of a paper. The abstract ….

Thesis writing abstract a

Writing an Abstract Writing Centre Learning Guide Often when asked to write a report or article, you will be required to include an abstract. Jun 13, 2020 · Writing a thesis abstract. Write down the main idea or research problem addressed by your essay An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of 300 words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes: 1) the overall purpose of the writing a thesis abstract study and the research problem(s) you investigated; 2) the basic design of the study; 3) major findings or trends found as a result of your analysis; and, 4) a brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions Dec 16, 2013 · Writing the title and abstract can be the easiest and most frustrating part of writing a research paper. What is an abstract? An effective abstract …. A typical document consist of three main parts: 1 Writing dissertation abstracts with our dissertation company is the right way to academic success. A typical document consist of three main parts: 1 Jul 06, 2012 · How to write the abstract Write the title of your thesis then add the word ‘abstract’ Type the numbered headings shown above. It should express your thesis (or central idea) and your key points; it should also suggest any implications or applications of the research you discuss in the paper Honours thesis writing; Thesis structure; Print to PDF. What is an abstract?

Now highlight the final results of the thesis When you have written a research paper, a thesis, or a dissertation, it is common practice to provide a summary of the work contained in the document. Most often, the author of the entire work (or prospective work) writes the abstract. It is a type of discourse consisting of five different but complementary moves. Try to write one to two sentences summarizing each section of your paper. writingcenter.gmu.edu/guides/writing-an-abstract. What is an abstract? The abstract is an important component of your thesis. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 2 for Writing an Effective Abstract. Begin the abstract by providing some condensed background information and a statement of overview or purpose, much like the kind of material an author provides in an introduction and a thesis statement Jun 02, 2015 · When writing an abstract there are two principal styles: informational or descriptive. The significant difference between an abstract and a thesis statement is the purpose behind each. This dissertation summarizes an experimental investigation of flow and. You may write an abstract for various reasons A proposal paper sets out your writing a thesis abstract reasoning for the study, justifies the research and explains your intended methods.

If you are having difficulty in developing your abstract, the following suggestions might be useful. The manuscript can then be used as a guide to write the abstract, which serves as a concise summary of your research Abstract: “My dissertation argues that fiction produced in England during the frequent financial crises and political volatility experienced between 1770 and 1820 both reflected and shaped the cultural anxiety occasioned by a seemingly random and increasingly uncertain world Writing an abstract for a technical paper. You will almost always have to include an abstract when writing a thesis, dissertation, Aims. Definition. Dissertations and other graduate-level research often require proposals, or you may create one to apply for grant money. The tense you would use largely depends on the subject of your sentence. Both of these function as an introduction to and a summary of the work, but the key difference is that while informational abstracts do include the results, conclusions and recommendations , descriptive abstracts do not include this information , which is essentially the outcome of the work Think of yourself as a member writing a thesis abstract of a jury, listening to a lawyer who is presenting an opening argument. Do not quote.

Hypothesis Characteristics

When writing an abstract for a research article, several tenses can be used. Writing an abstract Understanding and developing abstracts What is an abstract? You are being asked to provide a summary of what your research study consists Abstract Thesis Research Results. Thesis writers can do this under the following headings (and then delete these headings if they offend the purists): Writing a structured abstract for the thesis James Hartley James Hartleysuggests how to improve thesis abstracts Abstract Style State your point once in a straightforward manner and move on. The abstract concisely reports the aims and outcomes of your research so that readers know exactly what the paper is about How to writing a thesis abstract Write Abstract for Thesis Dissertation Abstract Research Questions. The abstract should frame the question(s) to be addressed and why they are important, how you have solved the problems and how the results can be placed in the wider context of the field. 1.1. Posted on March 25, 2012 Updated on October 13, 2013. Start by …. Next, indicate the methods that you used to answer your question.

As the section, How to structure your dissertation abstract explains, the abstract has a number of components, typically including: (a) study background and significance; (b) components of your research strategy; …. You should view it as an opportunity to set accurate expectations. To put it another way, this type of abstract summarizes the key information from every major section in the body of the report Apr 16, 2019 · Abstract or summary is an important part is written at the beginning of a paper. Writing the paper first solves this problem, effectively refreshing your memory as you condense all of the aspects of your work into a single document. Jun 13, 2020 · Writing a thesis abstract. An abstract is a short summary of a larger work, such as a dissertation or research paper. This part …. Descriptive abstracts explain the purpose, goal, and methods of your research but leave out the results section. A common mistake is that abstract summarizes only the first chapter (Introduction) and says nothing about the content of other chapters An abstract covers the main points in your thesis paper right from the introduction to the conclusion. Abstract: “W.J.T. While master’s thesis abstract takes about 150 words on average, doctorate thesis abstracts take about 350 words in most writing a thesis abstract parts of the world Mar 07, 2017 · Writing an Abstract for a Psychology Research Paper, Dissertation and Lab Report What is a Psychology Abstract?

Academic Dissertation

There are two major things to keep in mind when writing your title and abstract: Be clear and concise. Dissertations and other graduate-level research often require proposals, or you may create one to apply for grant money. To put it another writing a thesis abstract way, this type of abstract summarizes the key information from every major section in the body of the report Apr 16, 2019 · Abstract or summary is an important part is written at the beginning of a paper. An abstract is a small window opening into the full content of your research/thesis. Why write an abstract? A typical document consist of three main parts: 1 Mar 06, 2020 · Writing Your Abstract 1. If the paper is a scientific article, then write an abstract of a maximum of 300 words and a minimum of 150 words. This is usually a very concise summary of what the report or article is about and is usually placed before the body of your writing. Deaf community about reading and writing ASL, [abstract].

Highlight some of the objectives and hypothesis stated in your paper. It is an original work, not an excerpted passage. However, because the book is written mainly for a North American audience, British students might like to check their institution’s regula-tions in this respect Jan 14, 2020 · The audience for this abstract covers the broadest possible scope--from expert to lay person. References:. No page numbers are printed on the abstract. In general the thesis abstract is about 300 words, and for Monash doctoral theses, no more than 500. One example is: Thesis. All abstract phd thesis. It should be brief -- typically under 200 words. If you are having difficulty in developing your abstract, the following suggestions might be useful. You may write an abstract for various reasons Writing an Abstract Writing Centre Learning Guide Often writing a thesis abstract when asked to write a report or article, you will be required to include an abstract.

Jun 10, 2020 · Remember, an abstract is a window on your work and a foremost introduction to all that you have written in the thesis or article. DO NOT include abbreviations or acronyms in your writing a thesis abstract abstract if you can help it, but if you must, don't use them without explaining them first.. The term abstract derives from the Latin ab— (away from) and tract— (to draw) Looking for some helpful tips for writing an abstract? Include only information or ideas found in the longer. In this case, you can resort to outside help for writing a thesis paper.. Once you have a rough draft, you can edit for length and clarity. What question did you aim to answer? An abstract is a concise summary of a research paper or entire thesis. • Be sure to check with your research advisor and read any specific instructions. Writing Abstracts for Bachelor's and Master's Theses Dec 11, 2013 · The thesis abstract is the first thing that your examiner reads. c) How to write an abstract for a thesis.

This fall, when we come reawaken our own spirit of inquiry as teachers, leaders, writers, readers, and thinkers.. Research supervisors will often recommend that you wait until you have finished the document before writing the abstract to ensure that it accurately represents what the work contains tured abstracts follow a particular format and systematically include all of the required information (Hartley, 2008). Include your thesis or main argument and the overall conclusions of your paper. You can begin with your overall thesis, as long as it is only a 3. Abstracts must have the original signature(s) of the faculty advisor(s) 2019 Convention November 21-24, 2019. Any discussion about prior research should be ….Writing An Abstract For A Dissertation/Thesis. To put it another way, this type of abstract summarizes the key information from every major section in the body of the report Apr 16, 2019 · Abstract or summary is an important part is written at the beginning of writing a thesis abstract a paper. It is very common to come across a large number of flawed and …. (Narrowing statement) One such technique is the method that involves the use of ….

Theses And Dissertations Online

Summarizes the key information from each of the main sections of the report, and proportionately so a 3-page section of a page report ought to take up about 30 percent of the informative abstract Apr 16, 2019 · However, abstracts are usually limited to 500 words, summaries of 1000 words are usually termed as ‘Executive summaries’. Read both versions and try to figure out why the changes were made in B. To capture the very essence of the text, reading, or article. To put it another way, this type of abstract summarizes the key information from every major section in the body of the report Apr 16, 2019 · Abstract or summary is an important part is written at the beginning of a paper. An abstract is like a movie trailer. Write the abstract after you have finished writing your whole paper. You must write your abstract last. A well-written abstract serves multiple purposes: an abstract lets readers get the gist or essence of your paper or article quickly, in order to decide whether to…. Date writing a thesis abstract published 1 March 2019 by Shona McCombes. Definition. The abstract draws out in summary what’s in the complete thesis. How to Write an Abstract.

Boil down those main points by summarizing the “who, what, where, and when” of your paper. 2. Being mindful of this, always make sure that you only writing a thesis abstract supply the most elementary and information that is important your thesis abstract Sep 27, 2018 · Start writing an abstract after finishing your thesis. Through this article let us attempt to identify other differences between these two while broadening our understanding of the terms.. Jun 13, 2020 · Writing a thesis abstract. It should have an intro, body and conclusion. While you should aim for brevity, be careful not to make your summary too short. Your thesis is an argument, not just an observation or a restatement of the prompt or question. The Abstract should be the essence of your thesis. Why write an abstract? Writing a thesis is an arduous, trying job. By the end of your studies, academic assignments get more and more complex.

Jul 06, writing a thesis abstract 2012 · A thesis abstract – definition. This is usually a very concise summary of what the report or article is about and is usually placed before the body of your writing. It is the second most widely read thing after the research topic Apr 27, 2012 · In other words, write the thesis first! The abstract …. when writing a proposal for a book chapter. Abstract Of Thesis To begin with, undergo your thesis and highlight the objectives, scope, methods, conclusions, and then any other Write the objectives methods, conclusions, recommendations, conspicuously discussed inside your thesis’s paper. Writing the paper first solves this problem, effectively refreshing your memory as you condense all of the aspects of your work into a single document. A typical document consist of three main parts: 1 Steps To Composing A Thesis Abstract Size – Framework. An abstract summarizes the information in the proposal. Structure It is essential that you check the guidelines of your institution, faculty, dissertation manual or journal before writing an abstract, as there may be specific requirements that you will have to meet A thesis is an in-depth record of your study, so the thesis abstract would, to some extent, represent your findings. What is an abstract?

Its purpose is to inform readers as to the argument your paper sets forth or the conclusion of your research. The segment is crucial in your thesis statement because it describes how your thesis content is developed. Highlight some of the objectives and hypothesis stated in your paper. Butin in his book "The Education Dissertation.". What strategies can I use to edit and proofread? Suggestions: Make sure that your abstract answers the questions listed above; Concentrate on communicating the facts; Try not to make any general statements. Avoid “I” and “WE” while writing an abstract for a thesis Jun 05, 2020 · The abstract is a descriptive summary, no longer than 350 words, composed of three principal parts: Statement of the purpose Methods Findings of the thesis research. An effective abstract can make the difference between a positive or negative response to the proposal Useful phrases when writing a dissertation abstract. The goal is the shortest possible paper that contains all information necessary to describe the work and support the interpretation. writing a thesis abstract

Philip Koopman, Carnegie Mellon University October, 1997. In a nutshell, we are able to say a thesis abstract is really a small-thesis How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper Like A Pro. Here two such abstracts are presented for analysis. Writing an abstract for a technical paper. Obviously, a thesis (not to mention a dissertation) are very much different from course and research papers, which is why the approaches to formatting and …. What is an abstract? Summarizes the key information from each of the main sections of the report, and proportionately so a 3-page section of a page report ought to take up about 30 percent of the informative abstract Aug writing a thesis abstract 01, 2011 · How to write an abstract in 30 minutes Have you ever been in the following situation? Jun 10, 2020 · Writing an abstract is not easy and it requires a great deal of understanding and practice. Format your abstract into clear, distinct paragraphs—although, often, only one paragraph is needed. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Begin with a condensed version of your thesis.

Dissertation Questionnaires

Briefly state the methodology used in writing your thesis paper and go on to highlight the key findings and results of your research Developing the abstract for the thesis. On the basis of the abstract alone, before they start the text proper, the examiner will form some expectations about what is in store – how well the thesis is likely to be written, whether it is going to be well argued and evidenced, whether it is going to be lively or dull An abstract covers the main points in your thesis paper right from the introduction to the conclusion. It usually gives writing a thesis abstract a general overview of the major aspects of the entire research process, including the findings of the researchers Developing the abstract for the thesis. Purpose. For the purposes of writing an abstract, try grouping the main ideas of each section of the paper into a single sentence. Learn more Got it The abstract is vitally important because it is a short representation of the entire findings or thesis. While first person ("I", "we") may be used in the body of your thesis, you must use third person (passive) in the abstract. Writing an abstract for a technical paper.

An abstract summarizes the information in the proposal. (Background statement) A review of groundwater remediation in use writing a thesis abstract today shows that new techniques are required that solve the problems of pump and treat, containment and in-situ treatment. The manuscript can then be used as a guide to write the abstract, which serves as a concise summary of your research.. 6-7 sentences, 150-250 words) long. This full citation should be placed above your abstract. The abstract is a summary of the whole thesis Jan 23, 2020 · How to write an abstract Abstract example. The abstract should summarize the entire thesis. The Abstract should be the essence of your thesis. Mar 25, 2012 · How to Write your Introduction, Abstract and Summary. Jun 13, 2020 · Writing a thesis abstract.

Important Note: Don't forget to …. This is why it is written at the end of the thesis when one has a fair idea of what went into writing the thesis Thesis abstracts Swales and Feak also have a short chapter on writing the abstract for the PhD – a rather different kind of abstract. Kimberly Blessing. Apr 08, 2020 · Determine the type of abstract you must write. A proposal paper sets out your reasoning for the study, justifies the research and explains your intended methods. To put it another way, this type writing a thesis abstract of abstract summarizes the key information from every major section in the body of the report Apr 16, 2019 · Abstract or summary is an important part is written at the beginning of a paper. www.researchgate.net/post/How_to_write_a_good_…. Three key elements of a Thesis Abstract Aims. You can also see that there are differences in the type of. www.scribbr.com/dissertation/abstract/.

Umi Thesis

An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. The first move is optional and. What practical or theoretical problem does the research Methods. writing a thesis abstract Write the title, abstract (and introduction) last On Writing an Effective Philosophical Abstract 1 by Dr. In most research papers, the abstract is the section which includes the summary of the whole research paper. The purpose of the abstract is to summarize the research paper by stating the purpose of the research, the experimental method, the findings, and the conclusions Writing an abstract for a technical paper. Because on-line search databases typically contain only abstracts, it is vital to write a complete but concise description of your work to entice potential readers into obtaining a copy of the full paper Many professors will expect you to limit a descriptive abstract to a single page, so be certain to write with efficiency in mind—no filler. Summarizes the key information from each of the main sections of the report, and proportionately so a 3-page section of a page report ought to take up about 30 percent of the informative abstract Jan 26, 2010 · The first sentence of an abstract should clearly introduce the topic of the paper so that readers can relate it to other work they are familiar with. Sometimes having someone look at your abstract with fresh eyes can provide perspective …. Write the abstract as the last step of the writing process.

Avoid unnecessary repetition and irrelevant tangents A well-written, well-structured abstract provides a sense of the researcher writing a thesis abstract and the research. This part should be a direct Results and. Readers of academic essays are like jury members: before they have read too far, they want to know what the essay argues as well as how the writer plans. A typical document consist of three main parts: 1 Jun 02, 2015 · So, despite being the smallest section of a dissertation, thesis or journal article, writing an abstract is a vital stage that should serve to draw the reader in. Writing an abstract Understanding and developing abstracts What is an abstract? Start by clearly defining the purpose of your research. Put your biggest effort into getting them perfect Writing an abstract for a technical paper. How to Write an Abstract for Your Thesis or Dissertation What is an Abstract? Mar 01, 2019 · How to write an abstract Step 1: State your aims. Research When to write an abstract. It sets the tone of what is to come.

The experimental details should be left for the body of the paper (unless you are describing a new technique) Jun 04, 2011 · This does not come in essays or books, but in research papers and thesis writing. Abstract . The following points should be kept in mind while writing the abstract or the summary of a study:. Notice that the stages writing a thesis abstract of the abstracts have been labelled, so that you can see the function of each sentence or part-sentence. This thesis examines various attempts to construe theism as an explanatory hypothesis and to defend it with arguments similar to those employed in the confirmation of scientific hypotheses. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage. Follow a logical order that mirrors that of your original document. Some research studies are so long that it is impossible to include all of the results Use a Lot of Paper. Start by writing the full citation for the paper. Thesis Abstract.



  • It should writing a thesis abstract be an argument that takes a stand people might disagree with.
  • An abstract writing a thesis abstract gives a writer an opportunity to set accurate expectations for the reader.
  • Write in the sentences from your outline Definition and Purpose of Abstracts writing a thesis abstract An abstract is a short summary of your (published or unpublished) research paper, usually about a paragraph (c.
  • Your thesis abstract has to be brief but plainly explaining all the writing a thesis abstract basic articles of one’s thesis.
  • The process involves writing down the main idea of each paragraph on a writing a thesis abstract separate piece of paper.

Remove the headings but keep the separate paragraphs Tidy …. It might also be known as a précis or a synopsis. The thesis abstract is one of the most important parts of the thesis. An abstract is a summary of points (as of a article), usually presented in skeletal form. Step 2: Describe your methods. What is an abstract? Abstracts should be no more than 250 words, formatted in Microsoft Word, and single-spaced, using size 12 Times New. Use your notes to fill in the content in each case. You want everyone to know exactly what your paper is about simply by reading the title. Apr 15, 2020 · Write a rough draft of your writing a thesis abstract abstract. Summarizes the key information from each of the main sections of the report, and proportionately so a 3-page section of a page report ought to take up about 30 percent of the informative abstract Mar 01, 2019 · How to write an abstract.

Chapters Of A Dissertation

An writing a thesis abstract abstract is a 150- to 250-word paragraph that provides readers with a quick overview of your essay or report and its organization. The goal of the dissertation abstract is to summarize the entire content of your paper. A thesis abstract is a digest or a shorter version of the whole thesis. Abstract. Mitchell has famously noted that we are in the midst of a “pictorial turn,” and images are playing an increasingly important role in digital and multimodal communication. It is the aim of this work to show that such a construal fails to confirm theism and …. Ask a friend to read over the abstract. For a scientific paper, you may have sections titled Purpose, Methods, Results, and Discussion Writing an abstract for a technical paper. While the abstract summarizes the important aspects of a complete writing piece, the thesis statement lays out only the position a writer is offering within the document To write a perfect abstract follow these steps: start working on it after you have finished writing a thesis; don’t forget about the keywords (try to highlight no more than 5-7 terms); divide your paper into short paragraphs; look up the formatting guidelines (you can lose points on poor.

Surviving Your Dissertation Pdf

If you are writing about the Civil War, for example, the thesis "The U.S. You have selected a conference you would like to attend, and you have all the information you need for writing the abstract (the conference topic which suits your work, the maximum amount of words, submission through a website or email) An APA abstract must be formatted as follows: Include the running head aligned to the left at the top of the page On the first line, write the heading “Abstract” (centered and without any formatting) Do not indent any part of the text Double space the text Use Times New Roman font in 12 pt writing a thesis abstract Set. Environmental non-profit organizations in the UK currently face a significant funding gap. Civil War was fought for many reasons good and bad" is not adequate. One copy is required. Check for other thesis how an abstract has been written previously. Sample Abstracts for Writing. Suggestions: Make sure that your abstract answers the questions listed above; Concentrate on communicating the facts; Try not to make any general statements. This is one of the differences between an Abstract and a Summary. This section sets out some useful phrases that you can use and build on when writing your undergraduate or master's level dissertation abstract. Begin by clearly defining the purpose of your research. Writing an abstract requires to pick keywords and mention at the end of the abstract.

Dissertation Art

An abstract is a concise summary of a research paper or entire thesis. My dissertation addresses the question of how meaning is made when texts and …. An abstract of a humanities work may contain writing a thesis abstract the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work.